Learn how to use channels to model your data flow by building a web crawler in Go.

The other day I built a crawler that checks links on your website to see if there are any links that you can update from HTTP to HTTPS. You can find it at qvl.io/httpsyet.

I came up with an implementation that abstracts the coordination using channels and I would like to share it in this post.

Let’s start with the requirements:

The program should start with the URLs we pass to it, find all links on the site, and traverse through all sub-pages recursively. All external links that start with http:// should be tested if they also work with https://. And all this should happen in parallel.

Note that I skip validation and some settings in this post.

The crawler is a settings struct with a single function.

type Crawler struct {
	Sites    []string  // At least one URL.
	Out      io.Writer // Writes one site per line.

func (c Crawler) Run {}

The above is similar to having a function that takes the settings as argument, but it allows users of the package to write httpsyet.Crawler{}.Run()
instead of httpsyet.Run(httpsyet.Crawler{}).

Now let’s see how we can use channels to implement the architecture.

First, we want to output all URLs that can be updated. We don’t simply return them synchronous from the Run function, but instead we write them to an io.Writer, which is specified in the Crawler as c.Out. Since the crawling should happen in parallel and it is not guaranteed that the io.Writer is safe to use concurrent, writing to the output is better abstracted using a channel:

results := make(chan string)
defer close(results)
go func() {
  for r := range results {
    if _, err := fmt.Fprintln(c.Out, r); err != nil {
      c.Log.Printf("failed to output '%s': %v\n", r, err)

Before we can start the parallel workers for crawling, we need a way to send new sites to the workers. However, a single channel is not enough, because the workers themselves collect more sites from links, which also need to be queued for crawling and with a single channel there would be no way to know, that there are no more sites to be crawled. Additionally, we need to make sure to crawl each URL only once to not get stuck in a loop when links reference to the current or a parent site.

What I came up with is a function makeQueue that returns three channels:

func makeQueue() (chan<- site, <-chan site, chan<- int) {
	queueCount := 0
	wait := make(chan int)
	sites := make(chan site)
	queue := make(chan site)
	visited := map[string]struct{}{}

	go func() {
		for delta := range wait {
			queueCount += delta
			if queueCount == 0 {

	go func() {
		for s := range queue {
			u := s.URL.String()
			if _, v := visited[u]; !v {
				visited[u] = struct{}{}
				sites <- s
			} else {
				wait <- -1

	return queue, sites, wait

Let me explain what this does:

Next, we want to start a number of workers that crawl sites in parallel. This is such a common scenario that there is a tool for it in the Go standard library, WaitGroup.

var wg sync.WaitGroup
for i := 0; i < 10; i++ {
  go func() {
    defer wg.Done()
    // Pass channels to each worker
    worker(sites, queue, wait, results)


With this setup, we start 10 workers and block until all of them exit.

Each worker looks like the following. Error handling and logging is removed here.

func (c Crawler) worker(
  sites <-chan site,
  queue chan<- site,
  results chan<- string,
  wait chan<- int,
) {
  for s := range sites {
    urls, shouldUpdate := crawlSite(s)

    if shouldUpdate {
      results <- fmt.Sprintf("%v %v", s.Parent, s.URL.String())

    wait <- len(urls) - 1

    go queueURLs(queue, urls)

The workers internally range over the sites channel, which means that all workers run until sites is closed. As described before, sites is closed automatically in makeQueue as soon as the wait counter reaches 0.
The workers send links that can be updated to HTTPS to the results channel. And each worker queues the links found on a site. The queuing itself happens in a separate Goroutine, which simply sends the links to queue. By updating the wait count before queuing, the queue knows that there are more sites to come.

Note that wait <- len(urls) - 1 combines counting down -1 for the current site and counting up for all sites to be queued. If we would count down before counting up, the wait counter could reach 0 before we are actually done.

We could also use a buffered channel instead of queuing in the background, but this would force us to set a fixed buffer size. By using Goroutines to queue in the background, the workers are available to keep crawling sites and we buffer sites that need to be queued in memory.

The last piece missing to start the crawler is queuing initial the sites. This needs to happen after all the other setup is done, but right before the wg.Wait() call:

for _, u := range urls {
  queue <- site{
    URL:    u,
    Parent: nil,

Not all details of the implementation have been covered here and I encourage you to have a look at the source on Github. This post focuses on the usage of channels to handle communication in a concurrent scenario, that requires a little more than a single channel, four channels and one WaitGroup to be exact.

Please let me know if you have any questions and I would be really interested to hear about other solutions for this scenario!